Skip to main content

Section 28 Atomic Objects

View Source

Some PreTeXt objects are relatively indivisable and are used as components of other structures. We call them atomic, even if the term is not perfect. A good example is <image> (next, 28.1). This section is arranged according to these objects and tests the various ways they can be employed.

We frequently include some nonsense text inside short intervening paragraphs to test spacing and establish margins.

Subsection 28.1 <image>

An <image> can be placed in five different ways:

  1. all by itself, as a peer of <p> typically, with layout control,

  2. inside a <figure>, earning a number and caption,

  3. inside a <sidebyside>, with size and layout configured,

  4. inside a <figure> inside a <sidebyside>, with size and layout configured, with a number and caption, and

  5. inside a <figure> inside a <sidebyside> inside a <figure>, with size and layout configured, with a number and caption, but now sub-numbered ((a), (b), (c),…).

Examples of each, and more.

All by itsef, with no layout specified, so showing the default size and placement. Vivamus in congue massa. Morbi condimentum ac magna at accumsan. Vestibulum ac augue eu lorem semper gravida.

Width set at 40%, so equal margins and thus centered. Aenean faucibus augue tellus, et sollicitudin tortor finibus non. Maecenas semper dolor quis diam placerat, iaculis sollicitudin augue finibus. Vestibulum facilisis ligula lectus, ac tristique nisl aliquet non.

Asymmetric margins of 20% and 40% given, implying 40% width, equal to previous instance. Vivamus suscipit diam eget mi cursus viverra.

As a plain component of a <sidebyside>. Widths here are 20% and 30%, margins and gaps are automatic, default alignment on top edges. Nulla pharetra imperdiet elit, in sodales nibh blandit ultricies. Maecenas efficitur ac felis ut pharetra.

Inside a <figure> with no adjustments, so default behavior. Note how a <figure> occupies the entire width of the page, so then does the caption.

Figure 28.1. New Zealand Landscape

Inside a <figure> with asymmetric (large) margins of 30% and 60%. Quisque finibus augue sit amet facilisis fringilla. Aenean faucibus augue tellus, et sollicitudin tortor finibus non.

Figure 28.2. New Zealand Landscape

Inside figures inside a <sidebyside>. Same widths as previous <sidebyside> but alignment on bottoms of the panels, to partially align captions. Note how the captions are constrained in width by the width of the panels of the side-by-side.

Figure 28.3. NZ Landscape
Figure 28.4. New Zealand Terrascape

Identical code to previous example, but now wrapped in an overall <figure>, which has its own caption and number, leaving the interior figures to be sub-numbered. Cross-references use the full number: Figure 28.5.(b).

(a) NZ Landscape
(b) New Zealand Terrascape
Figure 28.5. Amalgamation of Scapes

Subsection 28.2 <video>

An <video> can be placed in five different ways:

  1. all by itself, as a peer of <p> typically, with layout control,

  2. inside a <figure>, earning a number and caption,

  3. inside a <sidebyside>, with size and layout configured,

  4. inside a <figure> inside a <sidebyside>, with size and layout configured, with a number and caption, and

  5. inside a <figure> inside a <sidebyside> inside a <figure>, with size and layout configured, with a number and caption, but now sub-numbered ((a), (b), (c),…).

Examples of each, and more.

Videos can be realized in many forms, and can come from a variety of sources. See Section 19 for tests of some of that variety. Here we are testing placement within surroundings and testing the schema for location. But we do have two videos in each test, one provided as a local file and one embedded from a service.

All by itsef, with no layout specified, so showing the default size and placement. Vivamus in congue massa. Morbi condimentum ac magna at accumsan. Vestibulum ac augue eu lorem semper gravida.

Vestibulum facilisis ligula lectus, ac tristique nisl aliquet non. Quisque ornare felis arcu. Vivamus suscipit diam eget mi cursus viverra.

Width set at 40%, so equal margins and thus centered. Aenean faucibus augue tellus, et sollicitudin tortor finibus non. Maecenas semper dolor quis diam placerat, iaculis sollicitudin augue finibus. Vestibulum facilisis ligula lectus, ac tristique nisl aliquet non.

Vestibulum facilisis ligula lectus, ac tristique nisl aliquet non. Quisque ornare felis arcu. Vivamus suscipit diam eget mi cursus viverra.

Asymmetric margins of 20% and 40% given, implying 40% width, equal to previous instance. Vivamus suscipit diam eget mi cursus viverra.

Vestibulum facilisis ligula lectus, ac tristique nisl aliquet non. Quisque ornare felis arcu. Vivamus suscipit diam eget mi cursus viverra.

As a plain component of a <sidebyside>. Widths here are 20% and 30%, margins and gaps are automatic, default alignment on top edges. Nulla pharetra imperdiet elit, in sodales nibh blandit ultricies. Maecenas efficitur ac felis ut pharetra.

Inside a <figure> with no adjustments, so default behavior. Note how a <figure> occupies the entire width of the page, so then does the caption.

Figure 28.6. University of Puget Sound Promotional Video

Vestibulum facilisis ligula lectus, ac tristique nisl aliquet non. Quisque ornare felis arcu. Vivamus suscipit diam eget mi cursus viverra.

Figure 28.7. Pre-Roll Countdown

Inside a <figure> with asymmetric (large) margins of 30% and 60%. Quisque finibus augue sit amet facilisis fringilla. Aenean faucibus augue tellus, et sollicitudin tortor finibus non.

Figure 28.8. University of Puget Sound Promotional Video

Vestibulum facilisis ligula lectus, ac tristique nisl aliquet non. Quisque ornare felis arcu. Vivamus suscipit diam eget mi cursus viverra.

Figure 28.9. Pre-Roll Countdown

Inside figures inside a <sidebyside>. Same widths as previous <sidebyside> but alignment on bottoms of the panels, to partially align captions. Note how the captions are constrained in width by the width of the panels of the side-by-side.

Figure 28.10. Pre-Roll Countdown
Figure 28.11. University of Puget Sound Promotional Video

Identical code to previous example, but now wrapped in an overall <figure>, which has its own caption and number, leaving the interior figures to be sub-numbered. Cross-references use the full number: Figure 28.12.(b).

(a) Pre-Roll Countdown
(b) University of Puget Sound Promotional Video
Figure 28.12. Amalgamation of Videos

Subsection 28.3 <program>, <console>

A <program> and/or <console> can be placed in at least six different ways:

  1. all by itself, as a peer of <p> typically, with layout control

  2. inside a <listing>, earning a number and caption, with layout control

  3. inside a <sidebyside>, with size and layout configured

  4. inside a <sidebyside>, with size and layout configured, and inside a <figure>

  5. inside a <sidebyside>, with size and layout configured, with each inside a <listing>, earning different numbers

  6. inside a <figure> inside a <sidebyside> inside a <listing>, with size and layout configured, with a number and caption, but now sub-numbered ((a), (b), (c),…).

Examples of each, and more.

Programs can be realized in many forms, and can come from a variety of sources. See Section 19 for tests of some of that variety. Here we are testing placement within surroundings and testing the schema for location. But we do have two videos in each test, one provided as a local file and one embedded from a service.

All by itsef, with no layout specified, so showing the default size and placement. Vivamus in congue massa. Morbi condimentum ac magna at accumsan. Vestibulum ac augue eu lorem semper gravida.

n_loops <- 10
x.means <- numeric(n_loops)  # create a vector of zeros for results
for (i in 1:n_loops){
x <- as.integer(runif(100, 1, 7))  # 1 to 6, uniformly
x.means[i] <- mean(x)
}
x.means

Now a program with shorter lines, with no layout control.

/* Hello World program */
#include<stdio.h>
main()
{
printf("Hello, World!");
}

And a <console> element, also with no layout control.

pi@raspberrypi ~/progs/chap02 $ gcc -o intAndFloat intAndFloat.c
pi@raspberrypi ~/progs/chap02 $ ./intAndFloat
The integer is 19088743 and the float is 19088.742188
pi@raspberrypi ~/progs/chap02 $ 

Now similar examples, but with layout control: margins and width.

A <program> with a @width attribute, so centered and with equal margins. Note how the lines word wrap due to the smaller width.

n_loops <- 10
x.means <- numeric(n_loops)  # create a vector of zeros for results
for (i in 1:n_loops){
x <- as.integer(runif(100, 1, 7))  # 1 to 6, uniformly
x.means[i] <- mean(x)
}
x.means

A <program> with short lines, so significant, and asymmetric margins, which experimentally do not induce any word-wrapping.

/* Hello World program */
#include<stdio.h>
main()
{
printf("Hello, World!");
}

A longer <console>, with margins so significant the appearance is ill-advised.

pi@raspberrypi ~/progs/chap02 $ gcc -Wall -o intAndFloat intAndFloat.c
pi@raspberrypi ~/progs/chap02 $ ./intAndFloat
The integer is 19088743 and the float is 19088.742188
pi@raspberrypi ~/progs/chap02 $ 

Two <listing>, with <caption>, and no layout control.

/* Hello World program */
#include<stdio.h>
main()
{
printf("Hello, World!");
}
Listing 28.13. Hello, World! in C
pi@raspberrypi ~/progs/chap02 $ gcc -Wall -o intAndFloat intAndFloat.c
pi@raspberrypi ~/progs/chap02 $ ./intAndFloat
The integer is 19088743 and the float is 19088.742188
pi@raspberrypi ~/progs/chap02 $ 
Listing 28.14. A console session on a Raspberry Pi

Same two <listing>, but now with layout control on the <program> and <console>.

/* Hello World program */
#include<stdio.h>
main()
{
printf("Hello, World!");
}
Listing 28.15. Hello, World! in C
pi@raspberrypi ~/progs/chap02 $ gcc -Wall -o intAndFloat intAndFloat.c
pi@raspberrypi ~/progs/chap02 $ ./intAndFloat
The integer is 19088743 and the float is 19088.742188
pi@raspberrypi ~/progs/chap02 $ 
Listing 28.16. A console session on a Raspberry Pi

This <sidebyside> gives each panel a 30% width. The remaining 10% is apportioned for margins and separation.

/* Hello World program */
#include<stdio.h>
main()
{
printf("Hello, World!");
}
pi@raspberrypi ~/progs/chap02 $ gcc -Wall -o intAndFloat intAndFloat.c
pi@raspberrypi ~/progs/chap02 $ ./intAndFloat
The integer is 19088743 and the float is 19088.742188
pi@raspberrypi ~/progs/chap02 $ 
n_loops <- 10
x.means <- numeric(n_loops)  # create a vector of zeros for results
for (i in 1:n_loops){
x <- as.integer(runif(100, 1, 7))  # 1 to 6, uniformly
x.means[i] <- mean(x)
}
x.means

This is the same three-panel <sidebyside>, but now inside of a <figure>, earning a number and a <caption>.

/* Hello World program */
#include<stdio.h>
main()
{
printf("Hello, World!");
}
pi@raspberrypi ~/progs/chap02 $ gcc -Wall -o intAndFloat intAndFloat.c
pi@raspberrypi ~/progs/chap02 $ ./intAndFloat
The integer is 19088743 and the float is 19088.742188
pi@raspberrypi ~/progs/chap02 $ 
n_loops <- 10
x.means <- numeric(n_loops)  # create a vector of zeros for results
for (i in 1:n_loops){
x <- as.integer(runif(100, 1, 7))  # 1 to 6, uniformly
x.means[i] <- mean(x)
}
x.means
Figure 28.17. Some Code Samples

Finally, a smaller <program> and a smaller <console>, each inside a <listing>, as the two panels of a <sidebyside> with no margins, and slightly different widths (to control word-wrapping). The panels have been aligned vertically so their captions align.

/* Hello World program */
#include<stdio.h>
main()
{
printf("Hello, World!");
}
Listing 28.18. Hello!
$ gcc -Wall -o intAndFloat intAndFloat.c
$ ./intAndFloat
The integer is 19088743 and the float is 19088.742188
$ 
Listing 28.19. Raspberry Pi

And again, the two-panel <sidebyside> of <listing>, but now inside a <figure> that has a number and a caption. And then the <listing> are sub-numbered as (a) and (b).

/* Hello World program */
#include<stdio.h>
main()
{
printf("Hello, World!");
}
(a) Hello!
$ gcc -Wall -o intAndFloat intAndFloat.c
$ ./intAndFloat
The integer is 19088743 and the float is 19088.742188
$ 
(b) Raspberry Pi
Figure 28.20. Two Code Listings

Subsection 28.4 <tabular>

A <tabular> can be placed in six different ways:

  1. all by itself, as a peer of <p> typically, with no layout control and hence with a “natural width,” and centered

  2. all by itself, as a peer of <p> typically, with explicit layout control,

  3. inside a <table>, earning a number and title,

  4. inside a <sidebyside>, with size and layout configured,

  5. inside a <table> inside a <sidebyside>, with size and layout configured, with a number and title, and

  6. inside a <table> inside a <sidebyside> inside a <figure>, with size and layout configured, with a number and title, but now sub-numbered ((a), (b), (c),…).

Examples of each, and more.

A <tabular> realized by for PDF/print will normally be as wide as necessary to hold the content, without word-wrapping the content of any cell that is not explicitly authored that way. This is the most rigid of the content types we call “planar.” So for PreTeXt output as , when you explicitly constrain the width to be less than the “natural width” (including use as a panel of a <sidebyside>, or even setting margins) the table will be scaled down in width, which can result in an apparent font size very much smaller than that of the surrounding text. Note that we do not ever scale a tabular up to be wider with a larger font size. Note also that if there is no attempt to control the space for the table (no layout control, not in a <sidebyside>) then no scaling is attempted at all and the table may be wider than the text and protrude into the right margin. For more, see the three examples at: Table 28.25 , Table 28.26, Table 28.27. Generally, much of the commentary and testing here is about /PDF/print. While for HTML output the cells will usually automatically word-wrap to fit in the available space, without adjusting the font size. Some might like this behavior and some might not.

Data in a table form can be placed in amongst a series of paragraphs. With no layout control, it will occupy its “natural width” and be centered.

State Population Area (sq. mi.) Statehood (Year)
Washington 7,614,893 71,362 1889
Oregon 4,217,737 98,381 1859
California 39,512,223 163,696 1850

The same effect can be had by specifying that the @width attribute have the value auto, but do not specify any @margins. We test multiple footnotes in a <tabular>, not included in a <table>.

State 1  Population Area (sq. mi.) Statehood (Year)
Washington 7,614,893 71,362 1889
Oregon 4,217,737 98,381 1859
California 39,512,223 2  163,696 1850

In amongst a run of paragraphs (or similar) a <tabular> can be placed with layout control. For output, this will scale the table to fit within the explicit, or implicit, width. This can result in obvious differences in the apparent font size. We first have a @width that is experimentally similar to the natural width, with asymetric margins. Then a narrow width, and a wide width, as an illustration.

State Population Area (sq. mi.) Statehood (Year)
Washington 7,614,893 71,362 1889
Oregon 4,217,737 98,381 1859
California 39,512,223 163,696 1850

Narrow. 45% width. 20% margin left, 35% margin right.

State Population Area (sq. mi.) Statehood (Year)
Washington 7,614,893 71,362 1889
Oregon 4,217,737 98,381 1859
California 39,512,223 163,696 1850

Wide. 97% width. 1% margin left, 2% right.

State Population Area (sq. mi.) Statehood (Year)
Washington 7,614,893 71,362 1889
Oregon 4,217,737 98,381 1859
California 39,512,223 163,696 1850

Naturally, a <tabular> can be placed inside a <table>, earning a number and a title.

Table 28.21. Natural Width
State Population Area (sq. mi.) Statehood (Year)
Washington 7,614,893 71,362 1889
Oregon 4,217,737 98,381 1859
California 39,512,223 163,696 1850

A little narrower, but still centered by default.

Table 28.22. Width of 60%, automatic centering
State Population Area (sq. mi.) Statehood (Year)
Washington 7,614,893 71,362 1889
Oregon 4,217,737 98,381 1859
California 39,512,223 163,696 1850

Very narrow, asymmetric margins.

Table 28.23. Width of 30%, 30% left margin, 40% right margin
State Population Area (sq. mi.) Statehood (Year)
Washington 7,614,893 71,362 1889
Oregon 4,217,737 98,381 1859
California 39,512,223 163,696 1850

Wider than necessary, asymmetric margins.

Table 28.24. Width of 90%, 8% left margin, 2% right margin
State Population Area (sq. mi.) Statehood (Year)
Washington 7,614,893 71,362 1889
Oregon 4,217,737 98,381 1859
California 39,512,223 163,696 1850

The next table is purposely much too wide. In Table 28.25 we make no attempt to control the width, and so it will extend into the margins. In Table 28.26 we have simple added the attribute width="auto". This attempt to use layout control will cause an automatic reduction in width and a smaller apparent font size. Adjusting margins providing an explicit percentage width, or placing the tabular as a panel of <sidebyside> will have the same effect. In Table 28.27 we have set the width explicity to 100% and so it should be identical to the automatic width case just prior.

Table 28.25. Tabular too wide, no layout control
State Population Area (sq. mi.) Statehood (Year) Capitol City Largest City
Washington 7,614,893 71,362 1889 Olympia Seattle
Oregon 4,217,737 98,381 1859 Salem Portland
California 39,512,223 163,696 1850 Sacremento Los Angeles
Table 28.26. Tabular too wide, scale to automatic width
State Population Area (sq. mi.) Statehood (Year) Capitol City Largest City
Washington 7,614,893 71,362 1889 Olympia Seattle
Oregon 4,217,737 98,381 1859 Salem Portland
California 39,512,223 163,696 1850 Sacremento Los Angeles
Table 28.27. Tabular too wide, scale to 100% width
State Population Area (sq. mi.) Statehood (Year) Capitol City Largest City
Washington 7,614,893 71,362 1889 Olympia Seattle
Oregon 4,217,737 98,381 1859 Salem Portland
California 39,512,223 163,696 1850 Sacremento Los Angeles

Now into <sidebyside> in various ways and with various sizes. First, two <tabular> as panels with widths at 60% and 30%. Note that in /PDF/print the tabular of functional values does not need the full 30% width, so it is at its natural size and centered within its panel.

State Population Area (sq. mi.) Statehood (Year)
Washington 7,614,893 71,362 1889
Oregon 4,217,737 98,381 1859
California 39,512,223 163,696 1850
\(x\) \(f(x)\)
3 9.734
5 2.175

Let's do that again, but with widths experimentally set to make font sizes match (approximately).

State Population Area (sq. mi.) Statehood (Year)
Washington 7,614,893 71,362 1889
Oregon 4,217,737 98,381 1859
California 39,512,223 163,696 1850
\(x\) \(f(x)\)
3 9.734
5 2.175

Same tabular, which fills roughly 80% by itself, packed into a single <sidebyside> with just a 2% gap, and no side margins.

State Population Area (sq. mi.) Statehood (Year)
Washington 7,614,893 71,362 1889
Oregon 4,217,737 98,381 1859
California 39,512,223 163,696 1850
State Population Area (sq. mi.) Statehood (Year)
Washington 7,614,893 71,362 1889
Oregon 4,217,737 98,381 1859
California 39,512,223 163,696 1850

Natural widths, but now as a pair of tables.

Table 28.28. West Coast
State Population Area (sq. mi.) Statehood (Year)
Washington 7,614,893 71,362 1889
Oregon 4,217,737 98,381 1859
California 39,512,223 163,696 1850
Table 28.29. Function Values
\(x\) \(f(x)\)
3 9.734
5 2.175

Finally, as two individual <table>, grouped and laid out via a <sidebyside>, and collected as a <figure>. Which causes sub-numbering of the two enclosed <table>.

State Population Area (sq. mi.) Statehood (Year)
Washington 7,614,893 71,362 1889
Oregon 4,217,737 98,381 1859
California 39,512,223 163,696 1850
(a) West Coast
\(x\) \(f(x)\)
3 9.734
5 2.175
(b) Function Values
Figure 28.30. Geography and Mathematics
Only from the West Coast.
Wow! That is as big as many countries.