## Section 4.9 Mathematics

As mentioned in the overview, Section 3.6, we use LaTeX syntax for mathematics. In order to allow for quality display in HTML, and other electronic formats, this limits us to the subset of LaTeX supported by the very capable MathJax Javascript library. Generally this looks like the `amsmath`

package maintained by the American Mathematical Society at their AMS-LaTeX page. For a complete and precise list of what MathJax supports, see MathJax's Supported TeX/LaTeX commands^{ 1 } (2019-11-10: this link may be specific to MathJax 3.0, which we have not yet adopted.) Once you have digested this more general section, be sure to also consult Section 4.10 for some very specific suggestions.

`http://docs.mathjax.org/en/latest/input/tex/macros/`

### Subsection 4.9.1 Inline Mathematics

Use the `<m>`

to place variables or very short expressions within a sentence of a paragraph, the content of a `<title>`

, a `<cell>`

of a table, a footnote, or other similar locations of sentence-like text. You can't cross-reference this text, nor make a knowl with it. Though you can typically cross-reference a containing element.

Do not use LaTeX-isms like `\displaystyle`

to try to end-run the inline nature. It will just lead to poor results.

###### Best Practice 4.9.1. Keep Inline Mathematics Short.

Longer mathematical expressions in an `<m>`

element can lead to awkward line breaks, both in HTML output, and especially in PDF generated from LaTeX. And complicated fractions or integrals can introduce abnormal line-spacing that is distracting to a reader. As a rough rule-of-thumb, keep an inline expression shorter than a moderately-long regular word and avoid tall constructions. This should allow LaTeX's line-breaking algorithms the best chance of success.

So a simple, short equality such as \(x=2\) should not cause a problem, but if you want to claim that the probability distribution of the normal distribution has the right scaling factors, \(\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\frac{1}{\sigma\sqrt{2\pi}}e^{-\frac{1}{2}\frac{\left(x-\mu\right)^2}{\sigma}} dx = 1\text{,}\) there is a good chance it will do less harm to your paragraph of you display it

using the `<me>`

element described next.

### Subsection 4.9.2 One-Line Display Mathematics

The `<me>`

element can be used for longer expressions or a single equation. Typically you will get vertical separation above and below, and the contents will be centered. See below about concluding periods (and other punctuation), and alignment. The `<men>`

variant will produce a numbered equation, and therefore with a provided `@xml:id`

attribute, can be the target of a cross-reference (`<xref>`

).

### Subsection 4.9.3 Multi-line Display Mathematics

We begin with a pure container, either `<md>`

or `<mdn>`

. The former numbers no lines, the latter numbers every line. Within the container, content, on a per-line basis, goes into a `<mrow>`

element. You can think of `<mrow>`

as being very similar to `<me>`

. If you are tempted to put a LaTeX `\\`

into an `<mrow>`

, think twice.

On any given `<mrow>`

you can place the `@number`

attribute, with allowable values of `yes`

and `no`

. These will typically be used to override the behavior inherited by the container, but there is no harm if they are redundant. A given line of the display may be the target of a cross-reference, though the numbering flexibility means you can try (and fail) to target an unnumbered equation.

An `<mrow>`

may have a `@tag`

attribute in place of a `@number`

attribute. This will create a “number” on the equation which is just a symbol. This is meant for situations where you do not want to use numbers, and the resulting cross-reference is “local.” In other words, the `<xref>`

and its target are not far apart, such as maybe within the same `<example>`

or the same `<proof>`

. Allowable values for the attribute are: `star, dstar, tstar, dagger, ddagger, tdagger, hash, dhash, thash, maltese, dmaltese, tmaltese`

. These are the names of symbols, with prefixes where the prefix `d`

means “double”, and the prefix `t`

means “triple”. Cross-references to these tagged equations happens in the usual way and should behave as expected. See Section 3.4 and Section 4.7 for more on cross-references.

### Subsection 4.9.4 Exceptional Characters

The LaTeX macros, `\amp`

, `\lt`

, and `\gt`

are always available within these mathematics elements, so that you can avoid the exceptional XML characters `&`

, `<`

and `>`

. See Section 3.14 for this same information, but in the broader context of your entire document.

### Subsection 4.9.5 Text in Mathematics

Once in a while, you need a little bit of “regular” text within an expression and you do not want it to look like a product of a bunch of one-letter variables. Use the `\text{}`

macro for these. Only. Other ways of switching out of math-mode and into some sort of “regular” text will appear inferior, and can raise errors in certain conversions.

Do place surrounding spaces inside the

`\text{}`

macro.Do not place any mathematics inside the

`\text{}`

macro.Do not use the

`\mbox{}`

macro as a substitute.Do not use font-changing commands (e.g.

`\rm`

) as a substitute.

For example,

<me>f(x) = \begin{cases} x^2 \amp \text{if } x\gt 0\\ -7 \amp \text{otherwise} \end{cases}</me>

produces

This example amply illustrates the use of macros for XML exceptional characters (twice), appropriate use of the `\text{}`

macro (twice), spaces in the `\text{}`

macro (once), sentence-ending punctuation (see the source, the period is *not* inside the `<me>`

element) and yes, we did think twice about the `\\`

(an exception to the rule).

### Subsection 4.9.6 Color in Mathematics

There is a temptation to use color to indicate or highlight portions of mathematics, especially for electronic outputs where color is easy and cheap. But before you leap, how will this work in black-and-white printed output? How will it work for a blind reader using a screen-reader or a braille version?

If you must, be aware that for older versions of MathJax that we support for HTML output (v2.7, as of 2020-08-19), the relevant macros have slightly different behavior than for standard LaTeX. But you can make both work if you are careful. This should not be an issue with MathJax 3.

With careful use of TeX grouping (`{...}`

) you can make the two behaviors of `\color`

effective. For example, go:

{\color{blue}{x^2}}

### Subsection 4.9.7 Cross-References in Display Mathematics

A cross-reference is achieved with the `<xref>`

element, see Section 3.4. You can place an `<xref>`

inside a `<mrow>`

, and remarkably, it will do the right thing. This is one of only two XML elements you can mix-in with LaTeX syntax. A typical use is to provide a justification or explanation for a step in a proof, derivation, or simplification. And it works best with alignment, see below.

### Subsection 4.9.8 Alignment in Display Mathematics

Displayed mathematics is implemented with the AMS-LaTeX `align`

environment. Ampersands are used to control this, so use the `\amp`

macro for these. The first ampersand in a line or row is an alignment point, typically a symbol, like an equality. The next ampersand is a column separator, then the next is an alignment point, then a column separator, then… The moral of the story is you should have \(n\) alignment points, with \(n-1\) column separators, for a total of \(2n-1\) ampersands—always an odd number.

For example,

<md> <mrow>A \amp = B \amp D \amp = E \amp \amp \text{Because}</mrow> <mrow> \amp = C \amp \amp = F \amp \amp <xref ref="txo" /></mrow> </md>

produces

Sometimes you want several short equations on one line. Do not use `<me>`

. Instead use a single `<mrow>`

inside an `<md>`

, and use alignment to spread them out evenly.

For multi-line display mathematics with no ampersands present, each line will be centered. This is implemented with the AMS-LaTeX `gather`

environment.

You can fool the alignment behavior by hiding all your ampersands in macro definitions, so there is the optional `@alignment`

attribute for the `<md>`

or `<mdn>`

element, in order to force the right kind of alignment. Allowable values are `gather`

, `align`

, and `alignat`

. The latter is similar to `align`

, but no space is automatically provided between columns. You can leave it that way, or explicitly add your own. For example, this allows you to precisely arrange individual terms of a system of linear equations, especially when terms with zero coefficients are omitted. When using the `alignat`

option PreTeXt tries to count ampersands to see how many columns you intend, since LaTeX needs this number (we are not sure why). This detection can be fooled too, especially if you have something like a matrix with lots of ampersands for other purposes. So set the `@alignat-columns`

attribute to the *number of intended columns*, if necessary.

### Subsection 4.9.9 Commutative Diagrams

Commutative diagrams may be authored using the AMS LaTeX `amscd`

package^{ 2 }. While restricted in some ways, such as the lack of sloped or curved arrows, it has one important advantage over more general drawing tools. Support for HTML output comes from MathJax, and hence has accessible versions included in the output.

Typical use would be within an `<me>`

element, so starting with `\begin{CD}`

. Despite this being multi-line output, we have not chosen to integrate it within the more general `md/mrow`

structure, but that decision can be revisited.

### Subsection 4.9.10 Fill-In Blanks in Mathematics

The other mix-in XML element is `<fillin>`

with an optional `@characters`

attribute that takes an integer value. You will get a thin horizontal line, on the baseline, which can suggest to a reader that they should supply something within the surrounding mathematics. The attribute suggests the length of the line—experiment a bit, since it is not super-precise.

### Subsection 4.9.11 Page Breaks for Tall Display Mathematics

For print output, do nothing additional and LaTeX will do its best to break your display between lines. You can turn this behavior off by setting the `@break`

attribute on the `<md>`

or `<mdn>`

to the value `no`

. Once you do this, you can then selectively allow a page break after a given `<mrow>`

by setting the `@break`

attribute on the `<mrow>`

to the value `yes`

.

### Subsection 4.9.12 Your Macros

These go in the `<docinfo>`

section, wrapped in a `<macros>`

element. Keep them simple—one or two arguments, and one-line definitions. This is not the place to be fancy, and not the place to try to end-run the structural aspects of PreTeXt. The idea is to define something like `\adjoint{A}`

for the matrix `A`

to be a superscript asterisk, and later you can change your mind and use a superscript dagger instead. Keep in the spirit of PreTeXt and use readable, semantic macros. For example, do not use `\a{A}`

for the adjoint of `A`

.

PreTeXt will use your macros correctly for print and for HTML, after erasing whitespace from the left margin, and stripping LaTeX comments.

The name of your macros also cannot contain any numbers, otherwise MathJax will “silently” fail and may not read any subsequent macros you might have. This is important because PreTeXt will place custom macros for you at the end of your own, defined at Subsection 4.9.4, to be used. Those would fail to be processed by MathJax if your own macros caused it to stop reading.

### Subsection 4.9.13 Semantic Macros

We have resisted using overly-verbose MathML for mathematics, or worse, inventing our own XML vocabulary for mathematics. LaTeX syntax generally works great, but to work even better within PreTeXt an author needs to take a few extra steps. Your work will translate better to a variety of formats, and will be easier to maintain, with well-designed macros. A well-designed macro will convey the mathematical *meaning* of the object to a reader of your source, without them looking at your *definition* of the macro. In situations where a mathematical object might be written with different notation, it should be trivial to change the macro's definition and preserve the mathematical meaning. For example, consider two versions of a binomial coefficient:

which could both equally well be the realization of `\binomial{n}{r}`

.

Here we describe some notation which often carries multiple mathematical meanings and/or may be created with LaTeX in multiple ways.

#### Subsubsection 4.9.13.1 Vertical Bars

Vertical bars are used for a variety of mathematical objects. Paired to create functions of expressions: absolute value, \(\left\lvert x-1\right\rvert\text{;}\) norm of a vector, \(\left\lVert \mathbf{v}\right\rVert\text{;}\) cardinality of a set, \(\left\lvert X\right\rvert\text{;}\) and the determinant of a matrix, \(\left\lvert A^k\right\rvert\text{.}\) As relations: division, \(a\mid b\text{;}\) parallel lines \(L_1\parallel L_2\text{.}\) Sets are another use: \(E=\left\{x\in{\mathbb Z}\,\middle\vert\, x\equiv 0\pmod 2\right\}\text{.}\)

LaTeX `\vert`

, `\Vert`

, `\lvert`

, `\rvert`

, `\lVert`

, `\rVert`

are the delimiters, where `l`

and `r`

refer to left and right, and the capitalized versions are a pair of vertical lines. The qualifiers `\left`

and `\right`

can be used to have the length of the bar grow to match what it encloses. Note that there is a `\middle`

that we have used above with `\vert`

for the set \(E\text{,}\) and we have added space on either side. `\mid`

and `\parallel`

are relations, used above to indicate divisibility and parallel lines, and so automatically get an extra bit of spacing on either side.

When using `\left`

or `\right`

in isolation, `\left.`

or `\right.`

can be used to define a group that only has a bar on one end. For example:

#### Subsubsection 4.9.13.2 Times

The “times” symbol sees many uses that are different: dimensions, multiplication, and more complicated products (such as a Cartesian product of two sets). Macros `\product`

, `\times`

, and `by`

could carry different meanings, even if each one is defined by the `\times`

symbol, \(\times\text{.}\) For example:

Chess is played on an <m>8 \by 8</m> grid, which contains <m>8 \times 8 = 64</m> little squares.

If <m>G</m> and <m>H</m> are finite groups, then <m>\card(G \product H) = \card(G) \times \card(H)</m>.

### Subsection 4.9.14 Punctuation After Display Math

If a chunk of displayed math concludes a sentence, then the sentence-ending punctuation should appear at the conclusion of the display. (And certainly not at the start of the first line after the display!) But do not author the punctuation within the mathematics element, put it afterwards, where it logically belongs.

More specifically, place a sentence-ending period (say) *immediately* after the closing of an `<me>`

, `<men>`

, `<md>`

, or `<mdn>`

element. PreTeXt will place the period in your output in the right place and in the right way. (By using LaTeX's `\text{}`

macro, if you are curious to know the details.) Here is an example. The XML source

<md> <mrow>(a+b)^2</mrow> </md>. Now...

will render as

Now…

This all applies more generally to clause-ending punctuation, such as a comma. Take notice of the requirement that the punctuation must be *immediately* after the closing tag of the math element, otherwise it will not migrate properly. For example, do not interrupt the flow with whitespace, or an XML comment, or anything else.

For inline mathematics (the `<m>`

element) the same authoring principle holds, though you would likely do this naturally. Author the punctuation *outside* the element, where it will remain.

Here is a technical subtlety that will demonstrate some of the inner machinery of PreTeXt and our conversions. In your work, locate a theorem that has some numbered display mathematics (`mdn`

) which is at the end of a sentence, and which you have authored as described above. In HTML output, test a cross-reference (`xref`

) to the theorem and you will see the period for the end of the sentence at the end of the display, where it should be. Now test a cross-reference (`xref`

) to one of the numbered equations. First, the knowl will contain the entire display, to provide context, but it also will not contain the period, since the rest of the sentence is not in the knowl and so the period is not necessary.

###### Best Practice 4.9.2. Authoring Punctuation after Mathematics.

*Always* follow the instructions in Subsection 4.9.14 about placing all punctuation following mathematics *after* the math element, not inside it. PreTeXt will do the right thing for display math for you. But furthermore, there are some special situations where the output format is not visual, such as braille or audio, where the placement of the punctuation is both different and important to not confuse “reader.” You can help ensure your various outputs are of the highest quality by observing these sorts of details.

### Subsection 4.9.15 Lists of Mathematical Expressions

It is common to make lists of expressions, equations, or identities. Think of the definitions of trigonometric functions, a collection of antiderivatives, or a compendium of generating functions.

In these situations, author a list item, `<li>`

, within an `<ol>`

or `<ul>`

, by using *only* the necessary `<m>`

element. Do not use an intervening `<p>`

, and do not include any adjacent text. Whitespace is OK. Then PreTeXt will add LaTeX's `\displaystyle`

command to improve the visual appearance of the mathematics, and so you do not need to.

If you prefer to not have this behavior, insert an intervening `<p>`

, and output will be identical, but without the `\displaystyle`

.

Note that *any* text, other than whitespace, outside the `<m>`

tag will disable this feature, *including punctuation*. However, according to the Chicago Manual of Style, 14e, 6.127, “Items carry no closing punctuation unless they consist of complete sentences.” So that comma at the end of your equation probably doesn't belong there anyway.

### Subsection 4.9.16 Additional Packages

Generally, you cannot add additional packages for use within mathematics. The exception is a package with support available optionally within MathJax. And it must have the same name as its normal LaTeX version. Then set a `docinfo/latex-preamble/package`

element to be the common name of the package. (The `cancel`

package is one such example.)

Then the supported macros of the package will be available with your mathematics elements, and you can use them within other macro definitions. We do not guarantee the absence of conflicts with other packages in use, even if employed by PreTeXt. Nor do we support debugging such conflicts.

### Subsection 4.9.17 Extras

There are two existing additional options, which we might want to remove some day for technical reasons. Macros from the `extpfeil`

extensible arrows package are available by default, and an `\sfrac{}{}`

macro is available for appealing inline “slanted fractions.”

### Subsection 4.9.18 Notes

As mentioned at the start of this section, your use of LaTeX needs to also be supported by MathJax so that it may be rendered as part of an HTML page displayed in a web broswer. In addition to the information at the start of Section 4.9, this subsection has some notes that may help you navigate this situation.

Generally, MathJax supports commands available in the

`amsmath`

package.You can construct, and use, your own macros,

*but only for mathematics*, not for document structure or document management. See Subsection 4.9.12.Support for loading “extra” packages is extremely limited. See Subsection 4.9.16.

The

`\matrix{}`

command, and its friends (such as`\pmatrix{}`

) are not supported by LaTeX, despite being recognized by MathJax. So use environments like`\begin{matrix}`

and`\begin{pmatrix}`

(with their corresponding`\end{}`

, of course) and you will get accurate results for both formats.